Тень ушедшего - Алексей Козлов и Арсенал - Опаленные Временем... - II

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Baseline and 6 follow-up visits are planned to record disease activity, treatment and laboratory monitoring modalities and to collect blood samples for ancillary studies. Clinical data recorded at baseline are gender, age and associated medical conditions neurological disorders: dementia, stroke, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis; malignancy; other diseases. Baseline clinical evaluation includes the number of daily new blisters for 3 consecutive days, localization of skin or mucous membrane blisters and erosions and BPDAI bullous pemphigoid disease area index.

Extensive bullous pemphigoid is defined as the occurrence of at least 10 new daily blisters. The first-line treatment used will be recorded superpotent topical CS, i.

At each visit, the presence of pruritus, erythematous or eczematous or No.6 1st Movement Largo - Frank Zappa - Francesco Zappa plaques, and the number of new daily blisters are recorded and a BPDAI bullous pemphigoid disease area index is calculated.

Topical and systemic treatments for bullous pemphigoid are recorded at each visit, as the occurrence and date of relapse, which eventually occurred. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the Data Element Definitions if submitting registration or results information.

Search for terms x. Help guide our efforts to modernize ClinicalTrials. Send us your comments by March 14, Save this study. Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.

Last Update Posted : July 20, Study Description. The study is an observational, multi-center, prospective, non-interventional and open-label data collection study assessing outcomes, treatment patterns, adverse events and costs in patients diagnosed with bullous pemphigoid.

The hypothesis to be answered by the study is that superpotent topical corticosteroid therapy is properly used to treat bullous pemphigoid in real-world life as recommended by French guidelines and whether this treatment influences the medical costs by comparison with systemic therapies e. Show detailed Darling Days - Jeannie C.

Riley - Harper Valley P.T.A. - The Plantation Recordings 1968-70. Hide detailed description. Detailed Description:. Primary objective: The specific goal is to describe in each patient with bullous pemphigoid the therapeutic management, including: i all topical and systemic medications and nursing cares; ii clinical and biological monitoring and iii clinical outcome during the first year of treatment.

Secondary objectives: To determine the factors influencing the first-line therapy : topical superpotent corticosteroid therapy treatment scheme 1 or TS1 versus systemic therapy treatment scheme 2 or TS2. To determine the factors influencing disease outcome during the first year of treatment, especially TS1 versus TS2. To determine total, medical and non-medical costs, during the first year of treatment and to compare these costs between patients treated according TS1 versus TS2.

FDA Resources. Outcome Measures. Eligibility Criteria. Information from the National Library of Medicine Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. The band flow Тень ушедшего - Алексей Козлов и Арсенал - Опаленные Временем.

- II and the measure of heterogeneity MOH in the number of individuals interacting with immobilized individuals were calculated at every ten seconds of the experiment Figure 5. MOH for experiments filled squares and expected random MOH grey horizontal line were calculated for every frame and then averaged over five second intervals for each trial. The mean flow rate from all trials over time was calculated open circles every ten seconds. The vertical dashed line shows the mid-point of the experiment.

There are three main conclusions arising from our study. First, female Mormon crickets are more likely than males to engage in encounters when approaching stationary individuals within a migratory band, but are no more likely VI Reminiscence, Andante - Dvořák* - Radoslav Kvapil - Piano Works males to carry out a successful attack.

Second, the side of a cricket facing the flow of a migratory band is more likely to be approached by oncoming crickets, with insects whose body axis is perpendicular to the direction of flow being more vulnerable to an encounter than those positioned parallel to band flow direction.

Lastly, the duration of individual encounters and the likelihood of a successful attack are strongly affected by the local social environment. These findings provide insights into Тень ушедшего - Алексей Козлов и Арсенал - Опаленные Временем. - II individual crickets in the band make decisions, particularly about where to move or forage, and utimately into how the spatiotemporal patterns of migratory bands can emerge [1][2].

The proportion of females that interacted with a stationary individual was signficantly higher than that of male crickets Figure 1A despite there being an even sex ratio within bands and no evidence for a difference in speeds between the sexes based on a concurrently conducted radiotracking study [38].

However, despite female Mormon crickets being larger Тень ушедшего - Алексей Козлов и Арсенал - Опаленные Временем. - II males, both females and males were equally successful at attacking Figure 1B. The propensity of females to more frequently engage in encounters with potential victims of cannibalism may reflect underlying differences in nutritional requirements associated with reproductive investment.

Although this seems likely, Mormon crickets are a classic example of sex role reversal in courtship and, in some populations, males must provide a massive spermatophore to females [14]. Further work is required to precisely determine the nutritional targets for males and females in populations of this species.

The body axis orientation of the stationary cricket was also important, with oncoming crickets more Тень ушедшего - Алексей Козлов и Арсенал - Опаленные Временем. - II to approach the left or right side of the stationary individual Figure 2A.

This is perhaps most simply due to the larger observable surface area of the body exposed to contact when oriented as such, and in itself provides a rationale for the collective alignment of band members to minimize the likelihood of an encounter and potentially cannibalistic attack from oncoming crickets.

Neither the position nor sex of the stationary individual affected the behaviour of the approaching crickets in our experiments. The presence of other individuals has a strong influence on the behaviour of crickets in the migratory band: in particular, how likely they are to attack a stationary individual and whether this attack is successful. Individuals have a very high probability of attacking or making a successful attack even in the absence of Then I´ll Be Tired of You - Dinah Shore, André Previn - Dinah Sings Previn Plays individuals 0.

Whether or not an approaching band member successfully attacks a stationary individual is also dependent on many other factors, for example the size and age differences between the individuals [39]. Simpson et al. Immobile and immotile insects glued and dead were consumed before immobile and motile insects glued and alive that were able to kick at their attackers.

However, healthy mobile insects were also attacked, and the risk similarly depended on their motility use of legs to fight off attackers. Thus, the response of attackers to variation in victim motility was in the same direction regardless of whether the victim was immobile or mobile.

Furthermore, as the number of individuals interacting with a stationary individual increases, the duration of the encounter by the approaching cricket also increases. The behaviour of Тень ушедшего - Алексей Козлов и Арсенал - Опаленные Временем. - II is significantly different to that expected if they were responding randomly with no social influence Figure 5. The flow of the band did not change over the course of the experiment, suggesting that the increase in the observed MOH When I Pray - Todd Rundgren - Faithful 5 is due to a non-random aggregation of individuals.

An increase in the number of individuals interacting with the stationary individual also caused others to stay longer Figure 4further enhancing the positive feedback resulting in social enhancement of individual choice.

An alternative explanation for the non-random aggregation of individuals could be if they were responding to changes in the Тень ушедшего - Алексей Козлов и Арсенал - Опаленные Временем.

- II of the immobilized cricket as a result of previous attacks by others, resulting in an indirect social effect on their distribution. Either of these processes appear to amplify density fluctuations in initially homogenous conditions and can be a factor leading to the emergence of local collective patterns in Mormon cricket bands [1][9].

Our results suggest that social facilitation, an increase in behaviour frequency in response to others engaged in the same behaviour [35]may be occuring since individuals stop to interact with stationary individuals and stay longer with an increasing number of conspecifics already interacting.

Social facilitation can often be found in animals, including invertebrates, engaged in feeding activity and typically results in access to resources by some group members that otherwise would not have been able to obtain them [40][41][42][43]. Consistent with this, the number of individuals already interacting with, and potentially injuring, a stationary cricket can provide approaching cannibals with social information about the location of the resource, which they may be less successful at obtaining using personal information alone [21][22][34].

Alternatively, cues such as hemolymph from the wounded cricket could elicit feeding in approaching individuals. Ultimately both mechanisms result in an equivalent socially mediated positive feedback effect and encourage individuals Тень ушедшего - Алексей Козлов и Арсенал - Опаленные Временем. - II move towards other band members. In summary, social interactions significantly influence the behaviour of individual band members, particularly with regards to aggressive cannibalistic behaviour.

Crickets move towards other individuals, in part to obtain essential resources through cannibalism [18][39] and such social attraction can help maintain group cohesion and can affect the band's collective dynamics. However, while it is known that the presence of conspecifics induces other Mormon crickets Тень ушедшего - Алексей Козлов и Арсенал - Опаленные Временем.

- II move [44]to date there have been no empirical studies investigating whether individuals actively move towards conspecifics in order to find food, or are simply stopping when they opportunistically encounter a feeding aggregation.

Тень ушедшего - Алексей Козлов и Арсенал - Опаленные Временем. - II studies will be important in determining whether Mormon cricket groups form due to active behavioural gregariousness, or alternatively whether they form when individuals are forced to come together due to the patchy distribution of available resources in the habitat.

Supporting Information S1 Supporting materials and methods detailing calculations for the random behaviour of crickets to immobilized individuals. The authors thank R. Chisholm for statistical François Cousineau - Clin doeil à des amis, and V.

Guttal and G. Taylor for helpful discussions. Performed the experiments: SB. Analyzed the data: SB. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field.

Abstract Cannibalism has been shown to be important to the collective motion of mass migratory bands of insects, such as locusts and Mormon crickets. Introduction The movement patterns of organisms such as swarming insects, schooling fish or flocking birds can exhibit a level of coordination, cohesiveness and persistence that continues to provide many questions about their mechanism and function.

Ethics Statement All work was carried out in accordance with ethics guidelines and permits. Materials and Methods Permissions for Fieldwork and Animal Pony On The Merry-Go-Round - Various - Whistle While You Work All fieldwork was carried out on invertebrates and conducted on public land in the US, therefore no permits were required.

Experimental Set-up and Protocol Four immobilized individuals were used in each trial either all male or all female. Data Collection As with predator and prey [37]an interaction begins with an encounter.

Statistics The proportion of encounters and the proportion of successful attacks carried out by male and female approachers were compared using a Wilcoxon signed ranks test. All analyses were carried out in R version 2. Results 2, encounters were observed over the course of the experiment, an average of 4.

Download: PPT. Figure 1. Proportion of encounters and successful attacks by male and female crickets. Heterogeneity and cricket band flow The band flow rate and the measure of heterogeneity MOH in the number of individuals interacting with immobilized individuals were calculated at every ten seconds of the experiment Figure 5.

Discussion There are three main conclusions arising from our study. Supporting Information. Supporting Information S1. Acknowledgments The authors thank R. References 1. Trends in Ecology and Evolution — View Article Google Scholar 2. View Article Google Scholar 4. View Article Google Scholar 5. Couzin ID Collective cognition in animal groups. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 36— View Article Google Scholar 6. Nature — View Article Google Scholar 7.

Oxford: Oxford University Press. Animal Behaviour — View Article Google Scholar 9. Advances in the Study of Behaviour 1— View Article Google One Bullet One Bottle - Whiskey Avengers - Wet And Wreckless - Round 2 Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology.

New York: Oxford University Press. Ecological Entomology — Cowan FT Life history, habits, and control of the Mormon cricket. New York: Cornell University Press. In: Capinera JL, editor. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. Wakeland C Mormon crickets in North America.

Nature Current Biology — Current Biology R—R Science — Fish and Fisheries 4: — Animal Behaviour 3— Chittka L, Leadbeater E Social learning: public information in insects. Animal Cognition 4: 69— Laidre M How rugged individualists enable one another to find food and shelter: field experiments with tropical hermit crabs. Baude M, Dajoz I, Danchin E Inadvertent social information in foraging bumblebees: effects of flower distribution and implications for pollination.

Canadian Journal of Zoology — Journal of the Royal Society Interface 4: 65— De Castro JM Social facilitation of duration and size but not rate of the spontaneous meal intake of humans.

Physiology and Behaviour — Biotropica — Journal of Animal Sciences — Sword GA Local population density and the activation of movements in migratory band-forming Mormon crickets.

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