Observers 1 have called attention to the fact that ants de- prived of their antennae Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica in some cases attacked and killed by ants of the same nest.
A few experiments were tried for the sake of testing these observations on Odontomachus. One of these ants, deprived of both antennae, was replaced in the nest from which it had just been taken.
It was at once fiercely attacked by several ants as if it had been a strange insect. It stopped, as if dazed, unable to meet its sister work- ers with the customary antennal greeting. The ants, however, soon perceived their error, and a few hours later one of them was licking and fondling the mutilated ant. By the next day the mutilated ant was dead, probably as a result of the 1 Forel, Fourmis de la Suisse, Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica.
Wasmann, Die zusammengesetzten Nester und gemischten Kolonien der Ameisen, pp. Two other experiments termi- nated in the same way. Two inferences may, I believe, be drawn from these obser- vations on the snapping and jumping habits of Odontomachus : First, it seems evident that these are reflex actions ; second, that they can be inhibited by the will of the insect.
This latter conclusion is supported by the experiment with the sugar and the yolk. It also shows that these ants learn by experience, and that they possess some form of memory. The peculiar snapping and leaping habits of O. Jiaematodes have been remarked by a few other observers. Emery has published a brief note on this subject, 1 and Forel 2 says of this insect that " en Colombie on 1'appelle ' Fourmi tac ', a cause du bruit qu'il fait en refermant brusquement ses mandibules.
Par le meme mouvement il ressaute en arriere lorsqu'il les referme contre un objet, ce qui lui a fait attribuer a tort la propriete de sauter. The ant makes use of its saltatory powers for purposes of escape, as any one who tries to capture a colony of these ants may readily observe.
That it leaps backward instead of forward, like other insects, is due Linda Goodmans Love Signs - Purifier (File) its using a most unusual organ for leaping, for the mandibles, which, as in other ants, are used for digging and transporting the soil, carrying eggs and larvae, and for killing and cutting up prey, have acquired an additional function as saltatory organs in O.
The breeding habits and the characteristics of the eggs and larvae of the Ponerinae exhibit striking deviations from those of other ants. I have not seen the eggs of Odontomachus, but throughout the month of May I have often happened on the eggs of Pachycondyla and Leptogenys. These are white and of a slender, oblong shape Fig. They differ in shape from the eggs of species of Eciton, Camponotus, Formica, Without Your Love - Julie Rogers - Julie Rogers mex, Solenopsis, and Tapinoma ; for the ants of these genera, representing several subfamilies, agree in having elliptical and 1 Biol.
The Ponerinae also keep their eggs in more regular packets, the long axes of Corpse Under Glass - Morpheus Descends - Ritual Of Infinity different eggs being placed parallel with one another. I have not been able to determine the length of embryonic development with accuracy.
It seems to be much protracted, as in other ants. Some eggs of P. The larvae of the Ponerinae differ from those of all other ants in several particulars, first made known by Emery. New GuineaP. Cape Colony Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / PacificaDiacamma rugo- sum-gcometricum F. Celebesand Odontomachus liaema- todes L. All of these larvae agree in having the mandibles powerfully developed for ant-larvae, the anterior portion of the body long and slender and Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica over the abdominal portion, and in being covered with rows of peculiar tubercles beset with more or less prominent bristles.
The larvae of Pachycondyla and Leptogenys are here figured for the first time. I have seen fit to figure also the Odonto- machus larvae because my material was evidently in fresher Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica than that depicted by Professor Emery. The larvae of the three genera may be arranged in a series beginning with Odontomachus and terminating with Pachycondyla. The young larva of O. The remaining eight abdominal segments are much enlarged and flattened ventrally.
The larva is kept on its back, and the neck-like anterior portion rests against the flattened ventral surface. The shape of the tubercles, each of which is tipped with a rigid bristle and encircled with bristles, is shown in Fig. The larva was about to moult, so that the tubercle of the succeeding cuticle is seen shining through the old one. The adult larva is shown in Fig. Compared with that of the young larva, its head is very small in proportion to the body.
Maggio,2. This seems to be the universal rule in ant larvae. The head in dorsal view is represented enlarged in Fig. The power- ful dentate mandibles lie just below the outer edges of the bilobed labrum ; still lower and projecting forward lies the labium, bearing on its tip the opening of Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica spinning gland to be used in weaving the cocoonand on either side two peg- shaped tactile?
Similar but somewhat larger organs are seen on the edges of the maxillae, Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica protrude on either side below the mandibles. The ten tracheal stigmata, begin- FIG. The bristly tubercles are essentially the same in structure as those of the younger larva, but they are relatively shorter and smaller. The larvae of Leptogenys Fig. In the young larvae Fig. In the adult larvae Fig. The head of the adult larva Fig. The larvae of Pachycondyla Fig.
The ventral surface of the abdomen is distinctly flattened. The head Fig. There is a strik- ing difference between the tubercles of the very young and the adult larva. In the former Fig. They lack the terminal bristle. The bris- tles about the base are somewhat irregular in their insertion. In the adult larva Fig. In the stages between those figured the gradual flattening of the juvenile spine-like tubercles can be traced through the successive moults. In this series of larval forms, Odontomachus seems to repre- sent the most primitive condition.
Here both young and old larvae have pointed, bristle-tipped tubercles, and there is little FIG. Leptogenys Lobopelta elongata Buck, a, young; b, adult larva : c, head of adult larva dorsal aspect ; d, tubercle of young ; e, tubercle of adult larva.
In Leptogenys and Pachycondyla the apical bristle is absent, but in both genera the young larvae have pointed tubercles. In the adult larva of the former genus there is a perceptible blunting of the tubercles, while in the adult larva of the latter the tubercles have nearly subsided. Of the former species he says loc. Biro, who made some observations on the larvae of P. He saw these larvae when disturbed Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica some termites move their long necks back and forth with sufficient force to drive away the intruders.
Xelle piccole larve, i tubercoli sono piccoli, subcilindrici e senza peli; negli stadi intermedii passano per una forma acuminata con pochi peli. Biro's observations may be true of P. In artificial nests I have seen the neck movements of the larvae, but they were often executed when the larva was undisturbed, except perhaps by the pangs of hunger, and they were Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica always made when termites or other insects were running about and over them.
Moreover, we should expect to find the tubercles more highly developed on the neck than FIG. I believe that while they may Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica organs of passive defense, like the somewhat similar tubercles and spines of certain caterpillars, they also fulfill other functions ; they would seem to facilitate the carrying of the larvae either singly --when full-grown or in batches --when young --by the worker ants.
In the last instance they would represent a peculiar form of Eden Synthetic Corps - Breathing Salt (File, Album) " poils d'accrochage" carefully studied by Janet.
Conference faite le 28 Fevrier, Paris, The appearance of these peculiar hairs in the young and half-grown larvae Loves Got A Hold On Me - Cheap Trick - One On One one of our common Texas ants, Solcnopsis gcmi- nata Fabr. The very young larvae have only simple bifurcated hairs, but when half-grown they have on the dorsal surface of several of the segments, besides a much greater number of these simple bifurcated hairs, several rows of long and peculiarly contorted bristles, terminating Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica short FIG.
Solenopsis geminata. Still another modification of the " poils d'accro- chages " is seen in Pogonomyrmex barbatns Fig. All of these modifications --the bristly tubercles of the Poner- inae, the simple and contorted bifurcated bristles of Solenopsis, the serrate bristles of Pogonomyrmex, and possibly also the fascicles of uncinate hairs described and figured by Emery loc.
The pupae of Odontomachus, Leptogenys, and Pachycon- dyla are enclosed in elliptical brown cocoons, like the pupae of many species of Formica and Camponotus. The pupa of L. We come now to a consideration of the breeding habits of the Ponerinae. The little that has been made known concern- ing their habits has led European myrmecologists to believe that the philoprogenitive instincts of these ants must be less highly developed than those of the Myrmicinae and Formi- cinae.
Thus, according to the above-quoted note of Professor Biro, when the nest of Ponera stigma is disturbed the ants flee and the larvae are "abbandonate dai loro vigliacchi custodi. J'ai fait chez elle une observation qu'il est bien difficile de faire en Europe ; mais ici elle est tout a fait constante. Par contre, elles prennent le plus grand soin des larves qu'elles emportent et cachent. Je soupqjonne que chez ces fourmis, moins sociales que les autres, les nymphes Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica seules de leurs cocons, sans avoir besoin de 1'aide des 9.
In many of the nests which I have examined the total number of the eggs, larvae and pupae, could scarcely be greater than one and one- half to twice the number of the ants. This fact, together with what has been said of the small number of eggs laid Hungry Heart - Bruce Springsteen - Hungry Heart one time by a single female, shows very clearly that the Ponerinae 1 Ann.
Tome 43, p. Indeed, the small number of ants in the nests of the Ponerinae is probably the direct result of this limited productivity. If this is the case, it does not seem probable that these ants would be more careless of their progeny Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica the very prolific specialized ants. On the contrary, we should expect them to extend even greater protection to their offspring.
This my observations show to be the case ; at any rate, P. Jiaematodes are in nowise inferior to the Myrmicinae and Formicinae in this respect.
The slightest disturbance of the natural or artificial nests of these ants causes them at once to seize their eggs, larvae, and cocoons, and to make for their galleries.
Occasionally some of the ants escape without anything, but if they are watched for a few moments, they will be seen returning, often in the very face of danger, to carry off more of their young.
They are, it is true, most careful of their eggs, somewhat less careful of the larvae, and least careful of their cocoons ; but these distinctions are not always apparent Trzy Zapałki - TSA - Live 98 can only be affirmed as the result of many observations.
When the colony is agitated, it is probably most easy for the ants to seize and remove the small packets of eggs and the younger larvae, and least easy to carry off the larger larvae and the awkward cocoons. Dead pupae Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica often collected in one part of the nest and are there allowed to lie unheeded. I Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica inclined to think that Professor Forel may have seen such abandoned pupae in the nests of P.
The strong development of the mandibles of the Ponerine larva as compared with those of other ants led Emery remotely to surmise the method which the Ponerinae employ in feeding their young. Le larve delle specie europee che finora furono osservate vengono alimentate Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica contenuto dell' ingluvie delle operaie che queste regurgitano sulla bocca delle loro larve, e forse anche col secreto di ghiandole salivari.
My first observation on this singular method of feeding the larvae was made on a large nest of Pachycondyla found under a stone at the foot of Mt.
Bonnell, near Austin, May 5. Before the ants could carry them away, I Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica scooped up a fine lot of larvae, together with the earth in which they were lying.
Among the larvae were several pieces, one or two seg- ments long, of a recently killed myriopod Scutigera. Into these pieces the larvae, some of which were nearly full-grown, had inserted their heads and were Moving On - Dre Wells - Vibes the softer tissues! This could be distinctly seen with the pocket lens through the glass of the vial to which the larvae had been transferred.
In another nest of the same species, uncovered May 16, I ob- served the larvae in the nest lying on their backs, devouring the pieces of some insect which I could not identify.
The former of these observations made in the field led me to observe the feeding of the larvae in my Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica nest of Leptogenys. I had frequently wondered at the way in which these ants decapitated termite nymphs or cut off their abdo- mens and scattered these about among their larvae.
It was all quite clear to me now ; examination with the lens showed that the larvae had inserted their long necks through the cut surfaces into the soft parts of the termites and were feeding exactly like the larvae of Pachycondyla. During the month of May I had frequent opportunity to see Odontomachus feeding its larvae in my artificial nests. These larvae are placed by the ants on their broad Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacificaand their heads and necks are folded over onto the concave ventral surface, which serves as a table or trough on which the food is placed by the workers.
The following observations are tran- scribed from my notebook : semiliquide ; e tale e pure in massima 1'alimento delle stesse formiche allo stato adulto, quando si cibano di sostanze zuccherine vegetali o degli escrementi liquidi degli afidi. Pero, molte formiche vivono pure in parte di preda, e nulla prova che si contentino di sorbire i succhi della loro vittima, e non digeriscano pure, medi- ante la saliva, alcune parti solide. This evening several house-flies, placed in the Janet nest of O.
One was given a fly's head, which it kept twirling around in a comi- cal manner, Falando De Amor - Carminho - Carminho Canta Tom Jobim it devoured the brain through the small cervical orifice. Another was given a piece of a thorax with Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica of the wings still attached, another a piece of an abdomen, still another, a leg with a mass of muscle at its coxal end, etc.
May This evening a small homopterous insect Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica placed in the Odontomachus nest. One of the ants A snapped at it, disabled Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacificaand then left it. A few moments later it was picked up by another ant B and carried into the chamber containing the larvae Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica pupae.
Thereupon a third ant C took hold of it and began Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica at it with B till it was torn open, but not into pieces.
B then placed it on the flat ventral surface of a medium-sized larva, which began feed- ing at once, moving the homopteron around with its jaws. After four minutes had elapsed, another ant D that had been standing near by, apparently much interested in the feeding, suddenly tore the morsel away and placed it on a small larva.
This larva was permitted to feed ten minutes, closely watched during all this time by ant D and another E which had come up in the mean time. Then ant D tried to tear the morsel away from the small larva, but apparently unable to do so, it took up the larva with the morsel and dumped them both on the ventral surface of a large larva. This creature seized the homopteron and forced the small larva to release its We Got The Love (Essential New Edit) - Various - Absolute Lets Dance Opus 2 and to drop to the ground.
The large larva fed for fully twenty minutes, closely watched by ant D and two others E and F. All of these ants tried at different times to wrench the morsel away from the Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacificabut failed. Suddenly a small ant G rushed up, tore it away, and ran off with it.
By this Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica very little was left of the homopteron and I lost track of Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica. A few crumbs of cake, moistened with water, were placed in the Odontomachus nest at This larva fed but a few moments, Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica the cake was not removed till The smallest of these three larvae nibbled Outro - Dú Maroc - Block Bladi Gentleman (Premium Edition) it for a short time, beginning at But one minute later this larva was carried away by a worker, and the cake was taken by another Einsam Wachend In Der Nacht - Wagner*, Berliner Philharmoniker, Daniel Barenboim, Meier*, Jerusalem* and given to a small larva at This larva, too, was soon carried away at 1 1.
It was not removed, however, till Then it was given by another worker to a large larva, which did eat some of it. The ant remained over the larva holding the cake in place till While the larvae were feeding, the ants themselves could be plainly seen to partake of the cake from time to time.
During the whole period of the above observations, and for some minutes later, i. These observations lead us to several interesting reflections. First, it is certain that the feeding of the larva of the Ponerinae is of a far more primitive character than in any other ants in which this process has been studied. It is, in fact, even more primitive Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica the corresponding habit of the social wasps, which feed their larvae with masticated insect prey, for in the Ponerinae the prey is cut into a few pieces only, Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica the pur- pose of exposing the soft tissues and making them accessible to the mandibles of the larvae.
Myriopods or large insects are disarticulated for this purpose, small insects are merely torn open. Leaving the question of systematic affinities out of consideration, the Ponerinae may be said to have habits of feeding the young intermediate between the habits of the soli- tary wasps, which provide their young with whole insects, and the social wasps, which masticate the food for their larvae.
In this statement it may, perhaps, be more accurate to substitute the Bembecidae for the solitary wasps, since the Bembecidae, No. But there are many ants whose habits have not been studied, and some of these may yet be found to bridge this chasm. In the second place, the above-recorded observations seem to show that the Ponerine method of feeding the larvae is of a most Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica and irregular character.
The quantity and quality of the food given to a particular larva, and the time it is permitted to feed, seem to be matters requiring no very strict regulation. The ants that feed the young rarely act in concert, but rather with a whimsical individualism that seems at times to border on the ridiculous. This irregular method of feeding suggests other consider- ations of a wider bearing. It is generally admitted that the polymorphism of the female sex in ants, i.
In other Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacificathe worker ants can control the production of individuals like themselves and of individuals like their queen. It is further maintained that these differences are effected by the quantity and quality of the food administered to the larvae at a certain period of their development ; but here our knowledge ends. These data have been accumulated from the study of the specialized Myrmicine and Formicine ants of Europe and North America, and are 1 Fine descriptions of wasps Polistes and Bembecids feeding their young are to be found in the charming works of Fabre Souvenirs Entomologiques, i ser.
Wis- consin Geol. Survey, No. Janet has described the corresponding habits of Vespa "fitudes sur les fourmis, les guepes, et les abeilles.
Sur Vespa media, V. Now, while we can, perhaps, understand Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica these more spe- cialized ants may manage to control the quantity and quality of liquid food regurgitated from their own crops and salivary glands, it is not so easy to understand how ants can exercise such control when they adopt a capricious method of feeding like that of the Ponerinae.
Such a method can hardly produce clear-cut results ; i. And a comparative study of the better known species of Ponerinae shows that in certain species at least there is no such sharp distinction between the sterile and fertile female as we find in the more specialized ants. Not only is the female sex Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica a state of morphological and physiological instability, i. For the purpose of illustrating this singular instability of Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica sexes I have compiled the following table from the literature to which I have access.
Winged Male. Ergatoid Male. Winged Female. Ergatoid Female. Worker Major. Worker Minor. Syst, Bd. The presence Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica a particular sexual phase is indicated by a cross.
Although it is by no means certain that the irregular poly- morphism of the two sexes of the Ponerinae, as indicated in this table, is due to an inability on the part of the ants to regulate with precision the quality and quantity of the food administered to the larvae, I nevertheless believe that there is some causal connection between these two peculiar phenom- ena.
At any rate, we may assume this connection as a work- ing hypothesis for future experimentation and observation. I believe that continued study of the relatively undifferentiated sexual conditions of the Ponerinae may lead us more rapidly to a solution of the interesting problems of nutritional polymor- phism than a study of the more specialized ants. When the larvae of the Ponerinae are mature they are, like the mature larvae of the Formicinae, buried in the soil till they have spun their cocoons.
They are then unearthed and the small adherent particles of soil are carefully removed by the workers. I have watched the burying of the larvae in Lepto- genys and the unearthing and cleansing of the cocoon in Odon- tomachus. The cocoons of the three species of Ponerinae are usually kept together, but the ants are scarcely as careful in this respect as the species of Formica and Camponotus which I have observed F.
Nor do they keep their larvae assorted according to sizes, a peculiarity which accentuates the irregularity of their feeding habits.
Forel, as we have seen, believes that Ponera coarctata may escape from its cocoon without the assistance of the workers. Unfortunately I had to leave my work at Austin before the Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica of Odontomachus were ready to hatch, but I am convinced that Leptogenys, at any rate, opens the cocoon and draws out the pupa when ready to enter on its imaginal life.
I have not seen this operation under normal circum- stances, as the two workers which appeared as callows in my artificial nest left their cocoons when I was not present, but for some reason the workers in this nest were continually opening the cocoons near one end and pulling out the still white pupae.
Sometimes one ant would take possession of the limp thing and hold it astraddle for a long time. Ultimately these prematurely born ants were either devoured by the workers or fed to the rav- enous larvae. Nevertheless the deft manner with which the cocoon was opened, the pupa extracted, and the empty cocoon at once placed on the kitchen-midden, or rubbish heap, indicated very clearly that this is also the method of procedure with pupae that have reached their full growth.
A word in conclusion concerning myrmecophiles, for the Ponerinae, like the other subfamilies of ants, are known to harbor arthropod guests in their nests. Only one of these had not previously been found in the nests of other species of ants near Austin. This was a small yellow ant, a Solenopsis, allied to Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica European 5.
It is probably a " Diebsameise," given to myrmecoclepsy like its European 1 The Ponerine guests enumerated by Wasmann in his Kritisches Verzeich- niss der myrmekophilen und termitophilen Arthropoden, Berlin,are the following : Typhloponemys hypogaea Rey staphylinid beetlewith Typhlopone oraniensis Luc.
More recently Was- mann has described the following ponerinaphiles : Fauvelia permira Wasm. Theil, Verhandl. Two specimens of the very singular little ant, Strumigenys louisianae Rog. Their relations with the Pachycondyla were probably of a more accidental nature. The other forms taken are pleomyrmecophilous, i. These are, first, a yellowish white species of Lepismina, quite common in the nests of Pachycondyla, but even more abundant in the nests of Camponotus castancns Latr.
This Thysanuran was also taken in the nests of Eciton coecum Latr. Second, a white Collembolan, similar to, if not the same as, Cyphodeira Beckia albinos Nicol. This insect is panmyrmecophilous, occurring in the nests Queen - Tie Your Mother Down nearly all the ants of Travis County.
Third, Myrmecophila ncbrascensis Bruner, rare in the nests of Pachycondyla, but very common in the nests of Formica fusca, var. I have no doubt that this singular little cricket had strayed from the Formica to the Ponerine nests. Fourth, a small Trichoptery- gid beetle was sometimes found in the nests of Pachycondyla.
As this same species was very common in the nests of Campo- notus castaneus, in the same localities, I believe that it, too, may have strayed from the nests of its typical host.
Sampson in July, The specimen was described by Stejneger in the Proceedings of the U. National Museum, Vol. XV, p. His diagnosis reads as follows : " Vertebrae opistocoelous ; parasphenoid teeth ; vomerine teeth ; eyes concealed under the continuous skin of the head ; tongue attached in front and along the median line, free laterally and posteriorly ; maxillar and mandibular teeth small and numer- ous ; Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica teeth in two strongly curved series ; para- sphenoid patches separate ; nostrils very small ; toes five ; six- teen costal grooves, or eighteen if counting the axillary and groin grooves ; tail slightly compressed, not finned ; toes nearly half webbed ; vomerine teeth in two F-shaped series with the curvatures directed forward ; gular fold strong, very concave anteriorly ; color uniformly pale.
He says : " Although many of our salamanders are known to inhabit caves, this seems to be the only one, so far discovered, which, like some of the other animals exclusively living in caves, has become blind or nearly so. A preliminary note Without Your Love - Julie Rogers - Julie Rogers the Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica authors Proc. In the spring of Dr.
Eigenmann visited Rock House Cave and secured a number of larvae, which Dr. Stejneger pro- nounced the larvae of Typhlotriton.
Later Mr. In September of he visited this cave and secured four adults and three larvae of Typhlotriton. A large number of the larvae were obtained from Rock House Cave a few days later. Those from the latter cave were found under loose stones and gravel in the rivulet at the mouth of the cave. They had been exposed to the light. It is scarcely supposable that those from Marble Cave had ever been affected by the light. In the caves both larvae and adults are found under the stones, the old ones in and out of the water.
Occasionally one is seen lying on the bottom of a pool. In the aquarium the larvae creep into or under anything available ; a glass tube serves as a " hiding " place. The rubber tube admitting water to the aquarium is sometimes occupied by several during a temporary cessation of the flow of water.
A wire screen sloping from the bottom of the aquarium formed the most popular collecting place for the larvae. They collected beneath this, although it was no pro- tection from the light. From these observations it seems probable that stereotropism rather than negative heliotropism accounts for the presence of this species in the Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacificaand that this reaction has been retained after the long stay of the species in caves necessary to account for the changes in its eyes.
The eyes of the larvae when examined from the surface appear perfectly normal, but they are Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica used in distin- guishing objects. When hungry they will strike at a stick held in the hand as they would at food. A stick lying at the bottom of the aquarium undisturbed is not molested. They strike at a worm when touched by it, or when it approaches close enough for its motion to be perceived. In the larvae up to 90 mm.
In the adult from 97 mm. There are Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica the adult distinct lids. These are closed over the eye, covering it entirely, the slit being much too small for the eye. The lower lid is free from pigment, but the upper lid, which closes over the lower, is as thickly pigmented as any other part of the body.
Stejneger says of the eyes that they are "small, only slightly raised, and covered by the continuous skin of the head, with only a shallow groove to indicate the opening between the lids, the underlying eyes visible as two ill- defined dusky spots.
In this section the upper lid overlaps the lower lid. Passing from the median section toward the corners Klingonez (Battle 2007) - Various - Rumble Party Vol 2 the eye, the lower lid unites with the underlying tissue first. When observed from the top the upper lid covers the entire eye.
The orbital slit is. The conjunctival pocket extends some distance forward and backward beyond the slit. The eye increases in size but little from the larval to the adult stage, and its growth is not proportional to the growth in length of the animal. See comparative measure- ments of the eyes at the close of the paper. The following is a series of measurements on the larvae of Typhlotriton.
Size of pupil. Length of eye. From optic nerve to front of lens. Vertical diameter 1. Sections of the adult and larva from Marble Cave were made in the usual manner. The m. In the adult the sclera is a layer of uniform thickness except in the region of the entrance of the optic nerve.
It is not usually separated from the adjoining parts of the eye, but in places is retracted a short distance Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica the choroid coat by the action of reagents. In the larva a narrow cartilaginous band surrounds all but the ventral wall of the eye.
In a specimen 35 mm. In three adult specimens the sclera of only one had any traces of cartilage. In the right eye of the adult specimen mm. The absence of this cartilage in the adult has probably no connection with the degeneration of the eye. Its presence is probably a larval characteristic which disappears as the Passion (Villa Club Mix) - Various - School Of Dance Vol.1 disappear during the metamorphosis.
The cells of the inner row are columnar in shape, those of the middle row rounded, and those of the outer row are very much flattened and elongated Fig. In the adult the choroid coat is usually separated from the pigment layer, but adheres closely to the sclera.
In general it is thicker at the back part of the eye, and quite decidedly so at the entrance of the optic nerve. The lens is normal. Its size is given in the table at the end of the paper.
The layers of the retina are well developed in the larva. The retina of the larva differs from that of an Amblystoma larva in the greater thickness of its ganglionic layer. This layer is, in the young larva of Typhlotriton, composed Blow You Crow - The Rabbits - Squirrel Brain (All Media, MP3, MP3, Album) five or six layers of cells. This thickness may in part be an arti- fact, since the retinae examined are shrunken away from the pigment epithelium, and the ganglionic layer is in contact with the lens.
Snake And Two People - Heaven 17 - Teddy Bear, Duke & Psycho the larva 90 mm. Aside from the differ- ences noted above, the eye of the larvae of Typhlotriton is apparently normal in all of its histological details.
This rela- tive thickness in the different sizes of the larvae may be gath- ered from Figs. The adult retina is reduced in thickness by the absence of the rods and cones and the partial?
The ganglionic layer in the adult contains from two to five rows of cells. In this respect, the adult approaches the condition found in Amblystoma more than the young does. The inner reticular layer is compara- tively thick, that of the young being thicker than that of the adult. In the adult the inner nuclear layer is continuous with the African Blood - Supermax - The Best Of Disco nuclear layer.
See Fig. The inner nuclear layer consists of about seven series of cells in the smallest larva and of four to seven in the largest. The cells in the preparations available cannot be separated into bipolar and spongioblastic layers, nor are horizontal cell layers distin- guishable. The outer reticular layer is well differentiated but quite thin in the larvae, and is irregular in outline, adapting itself to the overlying nuclei which encroach on its outlines.
In the adult this layer is indistinguishable by the same methods that make it conspicuous in the larva. In places there appeared an open space where the outer reticular layer should be Fig. It is fair to suppose that the fibers forming this layer are resorbed during the meta- morphosis. This layer seems to be the very first obliterated by the processes of degeneration both ontogenic and phylogenic in this as in other Harmonium Hard Mix - Melog - Harmonium (File) with a degenerating eye.
The greatest change during and shortly after metamorphosis takes place Incurved - Hydroid - Incurved / Pacifica the layer of the rods and cones. In the larva 35 mm. The nuclei of the outer nuclear layer are distinctly in two layers, whereas in the younger they are in three less regular layers.
The cones are correspondingly fainter than in the young. It is surprising that whereas in the larva 90 mm. April 1, Listen Now.
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